In 1910, as a whole, the population was estimated to be 45.4% Polish, 42.9% Ukrainian, 10.9% Jewish, and 0.8% German. This population was not evenly distributed. At the turn of the twentieth century, Ukrainians only constituted 13.2% of Western Galicia, as they lived predominantly in the eastern region (“Ruthenia”). The respective data for Eastern Galicia show the following numbers: Ukrainians 64.5%. Linguistically, 40.2% of the combined population of both western and eastern Galicia spoke the Ukrainian language as its mother tongue.
Galicia was predominantly Christian. Poles were Roman Catholic, while Ukrainians belonged to the Greek Catholic Church. Judaism represented the third largest religious group, and notably, Galicia was the center of Hasidism.